Global crises are issues that affect everyone in the world and require a joint effort to solve. Issues such as climate change are being constantly debated and require people throughout many countries to contribute in order to reduce the impact on the earth. However the information we receive about an issue such as climate change is carefully mediated and throughout media coverage. The discussion of climate change within Australia revolves heavily on politics and the cost and impact it will have on the Australian economy. The carbon tax caused a lot of political and economic uproar and the effects on economy tend to be prioritized. False balance, which is telling both sides of an issue can in fact be informational bias and this is evident through the issue of climate change. Some believe that the evidence that climate change exists is too strong to be giving information that create false balance. The issue needs to focus on finding a solution for climate change and reducing its effects. Small Island States are particularly prone to the effects of climate change and this is an issue that needs to be addressed.
The news can be described in many different ways, may it be, current affairs, major events or information. Defining news can be troublesome and what is worthy of news coverage also comes into question when analysing it from both a local and global perspective. What audiences see on through news outlets are a product of journalist and media organisations having a selection of what is presented to the audience. This brings into question whether or not the news audiences receive are the truth or just a neatened version of the truth. Peter Lee-Wright say that news can not be constantly covered and that having it featured “largely reliant on big name correspondents being jetted in to give both star quality and weight to the piece”. The relevance of news relies on the local audience and their connection to a particular news piece. If an audience is affected by an event on a global scale, the coverage increases on this particular news item. Different news values such as negativity, elite references, composition and personalisation all affect the way news is portrayed. News is an important aspect of globalisation and presenting the events of the globe.
Lee-Wright P, 2011, ‘News Values: An Assessment of News Priorities Through a Comparative Analysis of Arab Spring Anniversary Coverage’, Jomec Journal, pp. 1-19
When focusing on drama in translation there are both similarities and differences to translating in comedy. Sherlock Holmes has been adapted many times throughout both television and film. The reason for the continuous revisiting is due to the popularity of the subject matter that appeals to many audiences across the globe. The detective drama with a witty, smart protagonist is able to be translated and has been adapted in both the UK and the US. Detective stories tend to have an easy going hero or heroine, however the setting and general plotlines differ when comparing US and UK versions of detective dramas as they have different audience appeals. Elementary is the US adaption of Sherlock Holmes and while it is similar to Sherlock Holmes there are also differences in order to appeal to the American audience. The male and female duo is a key difference and creates a different perspective of the show and creates a sexual tension between the due adding a different level to the detective drama. Police procedural dramas are also popular but like the detective dramas are presented differently in order to suit audiences. Plausibility is key to this kind of television as it is this that draws audiences and allows these shows to be popular amongst cosmopolitan audiences. Translating drama across the globe is highly popular and in the world of evolving television, it is becoming increasingly popular.
Translating comedy across cultures relies heavily on the cultures themselves in order to successfully translate them for their respective audiences. This translation can be highly successful or can become lost in translation. There are multiple examples of television that have become successful however when adapted elsewhere have not meant the same ratings. An example of this is Kath and Kim, which was highly successful in Australia, however, the American adaptation did not meet the same standards. Sue Turnbull says in her article Television Comedy in Translation that “the cultural specificity of comedy, thus constitutes a possible sticking point for sweeping theories of western media globalisation”, which again demonstrates the importance of culture when translation television. A successful translation of comedy, however, can be seen through Ugly Betty. The universal character of Betty was easily translated across cultures making it highly successful where it originated as well as the countries it was adapted in. Comedy’s such as The Office left audiences split with both versions, UK and US, being highly successful with their respective audiences. Turnbull says that one of the most important aspects of translating television is the casting. The casting has a profound affect on the success of its interpretation and how it is received. Translating television can go both ways when presented to an audience, however it is its adaptability that determines its success the most.
Turnbull, S 2008, ‘Television Comedy in Translation’, Metro Magazine, vol. 159, pp. 110 – 115.
The Clash of Civilisation is the differences between politics in different parts of the globe. This separates western and eastern cultures and creates a focus on boundaries between countries rather than focusing on the complex patterns of flow. Media Capitals are focusing on both the different and similar things throughout cultures and allows us to connect to the cultural spheres in a positive way. The idea of new media capitals through television are transcending barriers and going beyond the usual dominant forces within television. This allows places such as Bombay and Hong Kong to assert their presence further in the media industry as the barriers of culture goes down. The emergence of media capitals in Hong Kong broaden television for the city. The emergence relied heavily on creative arts and the emerging consumer society at the time with a rise in advertising as well, through the emergence of this media capital. However, neo orientalism is becoming more prominent and Indian TV is described to be over exaggerated and lacking balance within its content. This raises the question of whether the rise of media capitals are all positive. Media capitals are emerging within this globalising society and continue to emphasize the integration of society.
The term crossover cinema is one to describe the cinema that is conceptualised amongst different cultures. It involves film makers and directors to incorporate multiple cultures and crossing over of these cultures within a single film in order to create a more diverse media through film. This idea can increase distribution and positive reception due to the hybrid content being produced which makes it culturally accessible to more people. The potential over cinema cross overs is great and through this the global culture is able to shift into a more culturally aware globe through this collaboration. This concept of cross over cinema can be seen through the crossover of western cultures and the Bollywood film industry. With the increasing popularity of Bollywood, crossing over with westernised culture increases its popularity and the cultural accessibility of Bollywood in western cultures. This idea of cross over cinema is an important one when considering globalisation and it is still a growing aspect of media and film throughout the world. However, the idea of cross over film does not mean to reduce the culture but to amalgamate the two cultures in a way that is accessible to all audiences and create more diversity in film.
The emergence of film industries throughout the globe goes beyond the well known Hollywood. Film industries such as Bollywood and Nollywood are become increasingly popular locally and globally.
Bollywood is the Indian film industry and has become a huge success not only in India and its surrounds but in the US, UK and other western countries. Contra flows are increasingly changing cultural influence on western countries as the demand increases. The dancing and singing that is recurrent in Bollywood films have become iconic to the Bollywood industry and has become a cultural symbol. Through globalisation and multinational the Bollywood film industry has evolved and the economic potential has grown. However with this growth, the westernisation of Bollywood films has also grown. Increasingly, Bollywood films have become more westernised in terms of attire, technology and traditions. The Nollywood industry is also a growing film industry originating in Nigeria. This industry, however, has a more focused aim at the Nigerian audience and the lower budget of films also reduces the audience to a local region. Nigerian films are not shown in cinemas however are directly copied onto video. Nollywood films are contextualised locally and this contrasts to the reception and growth of the Bollywood industry.
Schaefer D & Karan K, 2010, ‘Problematizing Chindia: Hybridity and Bollywoodization of popular Indian cinema in global film flows’, Sage Publications, pp.309-316
Okome O, 2007, ‘ Nollywood: Spectatorship, Audience and the Sites of Consumption’, Postcolonial Text, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1-21