Exploring the World of Reddit

Exploring further into Reddit I’ve discovered the events that shape the different communities and how these communities vary greatly across the site and the different subreddits. A key factor that differentiates Reddit from other platforms such as Facebook and Twitter where you use your real name to interact with people you know, is that users on Reddit operate under pseudonyms giving them more of a freedom to say what they want to people they don’t know.

The best and the worst of internet culture is brought to the surface through Reddit and it can have very real implications on society and people. In August 2014, photographs were stolen from celebrities iCloud accounts. These images found their way across the web and became the focal point of a subreddit named The Fappening. Due to the way that Reddit’s algorithm worked, it being new content that was highly upvoted, this subreddit quickly made it to the front page. This created wide spread discussion on Reddit in a demonizing way creating a toxic technoculture which it is referred to by Adrienne Masanari. It took 6 days for the subreddit to be taken down but similar subreddits are still active to this day such as r/thefappeningdiscussion.

Image result for the fappening reddit screenshot

The #gamergate controversy came around in 2014 that was stemmed from the harassment of game developer Zoe Quinn and began questioning ethics in gaming culture and the protection of gamer identities. In 2013 after the Boston Marathon Bombings, Sunil Tripathi, was wrongly identified as the bomber by Reddit users and his photo was spread online as a suspect causing his family being bombarded with hate messages. These incidents show how an online community can have a huge impact on the real world and how this can quickly become detrimental.

Good has also come out of this online community that have created a positive impact. In 2009 Dan McComas posted on Reddit with the idea of doing a Secret Santa through the Reddit community. It sparked a lot of interest and within days the site redditgifts.com was created. The first Secret Santa had 4380 participants in 62 countries and with a 96% ship rate meaning nearly everyone sent and received a gift. Since then Reddit gifts has expanded to over 280 000 participants in 160 countries showing that an online community can be brought together purely based on honesty and generosity.

The negatives and the positives are vastly different and this shows the range of people on Reddit and their intentions on the site. The lack of accountability of those putting forward negative comments due to the anonymity makes it more appealing to those who would otherwise keep silent in fear of persecution and repercussions. This can be seen as a product of the web, as we can say what we like without feeling the backlash and this creates a desire to engage with others on Reddit.

The role that Reddit plays in terms of world politics has been particularly prominent through the past year. The US presidential election and Donald Trump have been a focus and it’s the way that this online community flooded Reddit through pro trump memes that included Pepe the Frog, spreading theories about the hacked emails of the democratic national committee emails that were published on Wikileaks which was stemmed from a subreddit called the Donald. It dominated the front page of Reddit and eventually caused Reddit to change its algorithm to limit the influence a single subreddit can have on the front page. An article on the site FiveThirtyEight analyses the members of the Donald through an adapted technique called the latent semantic analysis. Through data on active subreddits and the comments it relies on commenter overlap across subreddits to determine what kind of subreddits users are interested by adding or subtracting components.

d

These results skew towards a more misogynistic and racist group of subreddits. While this isn’t conclusive that all members of the Donald are misogynists and racists reinforces Trump’s views. Recently, this subreddit has changed its focus onto the French Presidential election in attempt to replicate the US election through their support of Marine Le Pen, using the slogan “Make Europe Great Again”.

Image result for le pen pepe

Many of the members on the Donald are real people the presence of bots on the subreddit as well as across Reddit is something very prominent. It’s hard to determine how many bots there are or why they are there. Some bots are harder to pick out than others but their presence on Reddit is real. There is a subreddit entirely made up of bots which collect information from other subreddits and uses the language used in it to create new posts. This may seem useless, but Nvidia is using Reddit to teach artificial intelligence how to use language properly so it can better understand how a conversation works. Reddit is not only incorporating bots into its platform but pushing forward AI technology through the shear volume of content that exists across the platform. This video discusses the evolution of language on Reddit.

 

 

References

Massanari, A 2015, #Gamergate and The Fappening: How Reddit’s algorithm, governance, and culture support toxic technocultures, New Media & Society Vol 19, Issue 3, pp. 329 – 346

Poverty Porn

Poverty porn. A situation we do not want to be in yet we want to look at other in that situation. Poverty porn is defined by Aid Thoughts as

“Poverty porn, also known as development porn or even famine porn, is any type of media, be it written, photographed or filmed, which exploits the poor’s condition in order to generate the necessary sympathy for selling newspapers or increasing charitable donations or support for a given cause. Poverty porn is typically associated with black, poverty-stricken Africans, but can be found elsewhere.”

It gives way to the a cultural belief that those from these African nations are not able to help themselves and it is up to us, from our first world nations, to help. It is clear that these countries are suffering through hard time but the notion of poverty porn sensationalises this intensely, creating an idea that only we can save those in need and creates a vulnerability between both ourselves and those in media campaigns

A campaign video by Compassion International really encapsulates this idea of poverty porn and this clear divide of western society and eastern society that creates a very clear dominance of the cultures. The video depicts a young girl who is waiting for a sponsor to sponsor her and demonstrates how this child is impacted by this important moment. It is a highly emotion driven video as most aid campaigns are.

However it is not the emotional aspect that makes this video particularly uncomfortable and demeaning. It invokes this idea of the White Saviour Complex which creates this idea by being a so called ‘white’ individual, this gives you the means to be able to fix the low socioeconomic in these developing in Africa. It reinforces the idea that those living in Africa are simply waiting for the day that a white person will come and save them creating this hierarchy between the western culture and eastern culture. The emotional response of the family heightens this idea further and creates this idea of ‘poverty porn’

While highly emotive stories are seemingly always used it is clear that these methods work and they are being used against those who do donate. The effectiveness of poverty porn can be seen through a campaign by Sunrise Cambodia. This charity portrayed a young girl who was a sex worker and encouraged people to donate in order to allow her to learn to sew. The campaign raised over $200 000. However, this young girl and other children are paid poster children who are not what they are made out to be through these campaigns. This can be seen as an exploitation of both the children and those who are donating.

The concept of poverty porn is also portrayed in countries outside of Africa such as India. The film Slumdog Millionare was considered by many to be poverty porn. In an article by Tulsi Bisht it says that “although the international recognition of Indian artists involved with the Oscar winning film Slumdog Millionaire was cause for celebration, the film itself was fiercely criticised for depicting India in a derogatory, uni-dimensional way. Some critics claimed it reflected a Western fascination with ‘poverty porn’”. By creating a negative view of a country it can create negative stereotypes and perception of the country.

Poverty porn has a negative effect on both those suffering and those viewing this form of media. Creating a stereotypical image of those in need and consistently emphasising it creates distance from the viewer from the real issues. It also simplifies the issues that are occuring in these countries as they focus on mainly children without consideration for the bigger picture.

 

References

Bisht, Tulsi. ‘Poverty Porn’ and the Politics of Representation [online]. Eureka Street, Vol. 19, No. 14, 31 July 2009: 16-17

Kids and Animals

Image resultImage result for winnie the poohImage result for peter rabbit

Winnie the Pooh, Peppa Pig, Peter Rabbit. Animals across children’s television shows, movies and story books is everywhere and it’s abundant. The way that children are exposed to animals has through our media can be seen to affect the way in which children interact and respond to animals in the real world. Is this a positive or negative? Depending on what we are teaching them about animals, representing animals in a way that children can connect to them as well as in a way that demonstrates their natural biology is important. It is finding the balance between the two that determines its effectiveness.

It is difficult to deny the role that animals have in our media representation towards children. An article by Megan S. Geerdts called ‘(Un)Real Animals: Anthropomorphism and Early Learning About Animals’ (2016) explores this notion. Geerdts states that more than half of children’s book represent anthropomorphic animals that are represented through language and imagery. She believes that anthropomorphic representations of animals do help the efficiency of children’s learning however the key factor was the language. When anthropomorphism was mixed with anthropomorphic language there was a reduction in their factual understanding of the animals.

What this demonstrates to us is that the extent to which anthropomorphism is used throughout the media that children consume is critical when helping them understand animals. Allowing them to both connect to the animal through an emotional way as well as ensure factual knowledge of animals is a key balance to maintain.

The article The Representation of Animals on Children’s Television by Elizabeth S. Paul also noted that the representation on animals is focused on the nurturing animals and very little is represented in regards to meat consumption of these animals. Paul believes that this is heavily due to the paradox amongst society in which kindness and nurturing towards animals is advocated, society still finds the consumption of meat acceptable. This raises the question of whether it is acceptable to represent the meat consumption industry to children from a young age.

In a journal by Nora Timmerman and Julia Ostertag discuss the message given to children through the media’s portrayal of animals stating that “Anthropomorphism can have its benefits; indeed, children’s literature often uses anthropomorphism to teach moral lessons about how to recognize the self in the other”. It is also important to understand that there is a spectrum of anthropomorphism throughout children’s media. This ranges from animals that are the central characters and are separate from human character, to the relationship between humans and animals, to animals that have human qualities and principles.

This separation is important to make and affects the way that animals in the media are represented towards humans. Establishing a point of connection between a child and an animal can help develop a meaningful connection while anthropomorphising animals to a greater level can create confusion between the differences between animals and humans.

Does the representation of animals in children’s media have a negative effect on children? If so do these negatives outweigh the positives?

I believe that the issues that may arise from anthropomorphism are heavily outweighed by the positive affects it can have on children. Children’s television represent to children a positive way to view and treat animals and furthermore, view and treat people as well. While borders between what is real and what is not may create confusion for children this can be separated by introducing both anthropomorized animals as well as real animals to create a distinction between the two. The representation of animals especially towards children is vastly different from the way animals are viewed by adults and allows for connections to nature around us to be found early in our development.

References

Geerdts, MS 2016, ‘(Un)Real Animals: Anthropomorphism and Early Learning About Animals’, Child Development Perspectives, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 10-14. Available from: 10.1111/cdep.12153

Paul, ES, 1996. The Representation of Animals on Children’S Television. Anthrozoös ,vol. 9, p.169-181
Timmerman, N, Ostertag, J 2011. Too Many Monkeys Jumping in Their Heads: Animal Lessons within Young Children’s Media. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, vol. 16, p.59-75.

Sextchat

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The introduction of the smartphone application Snapchat was a huge game changer in 2011. Front facing cameras had been introduced and now the concept of an image that could only be seen for 10 seconds. This changed the way we took selfies and influenced the nature of the selfies we took, because what consequences could there be to a photo that you could only see for 10 seconds?

Initially launched in 2011 under the name Picaboo, creators Evan Spiegel and Bobby Murphy discovered the market to sending foolish photos on their smartphones. This then led to the new features such as videos and the ability to annotate these photos and by 2012 the app had taken off. Now with its story feature and filter features the app has over 100 million active users. Now it is dominating  the market alongside Facebook and Instagram but in a very different way.

This idea of a image that can be seen for 10 seconds and then disappears made it a perfect way to sext. Sexting is the sending of nude or semi nude images digitally typically through mobile phone devices. As the number of teens with smartphones increases this type of activity is becoming more prevalent amongst young people. The idea that this image is never going to be seen again makes it all the more appealing to younger generations to send these types of images when the may not otherwise have. Snapchat has changed the way we perceive ourselves and the images we take of ourselves by having an outlet that can be used without the risk of this image getting into the wrong hands. Loopholes do exist with the ability to screenshot images, however the sender is notified when this happens. However, third party apps did arise to get around this.

Related image

Creator Evan Spiegel doesn’t believe that sexting on Snapchat is a big issue stating that

“I’m not convinced that the whole sexting thing is as big as the media makes it out to be… I just don’t know people who do that. It doesn’t seem that fun when you can have real sex”

Source

An article by Kashmir Hill called ‘ Three Good Reasons Not To Send Nudes Via Snapchat’ puts the his views of sexting through Snapchat in a negative light by stating that;

  1. The statistical features of Snapchat such as your “best friends”, who are the people you send snaps to the most and the number of snaps you have sent “gamify” sexting.
  2. The loophole in which a recipient is able to screenshot a snap and is then free to distribute the photo without your control
  3. Snapchat encourages blog such as ‘Snapchat Sluts’ in which nude photos sent on Snapchat are willingly submitted to a blog

Generally the idea of sexting on Snapchat can be seen as a moral panic amongst older generations. However, it has become so common amongst the younger generations that the concept barely phases us. So is sexting on Snapchat as scandalous as it is thought to be? Has the shift in the way we take selfies affected us for the worse?

As we move further into a digital age, as well as, having a generational shift in the way we view ourselves and our bodies platforms such as Snapchat only aid the inevitable practice of sexting. Selfies have become a way of expressing ourselves and the nude selfie is now an extension of that.

Hill, K 2012, ‘Three Good Reasons Not To Send Nude Photos Via Snapchat’, Forbes.com, p. 38.

Rodríguez, K., 2016. SnapCHAT: The Genre of the Vanishing Memoir. GRASSROOTS WRITING RESEARCH JOURNAL, p.55.

Poltash, Nicole A.. Richmond Journal of Law & Technology , Summer2013, Vol. 19 Issue 4, p1-24, 24p. Publisher: Richmond Journal of Law & Technology

Reddit – A Digital Artefact

Reddit. The so called “front page of the internet”, and what a front page it is.

After delving into the world of Reddit through my DIGC202 digital artefact, I discovered that it was a platform unlike any I had used before, I wanted to continue exploring the platform of Reddit in order to gain further understanding of why this platform has been so heavily used and how it has retained its popularity even as other social media sites begin to dominate internet culture and how this affects society itself.

This Digital Artefact is aimed to develop my understanding of the platform and how it operates. The operation of bots on Reddit is also a question mark for me that I’d like to explore to find out how these affect the information on Reddit.

The platform has both positive and negative side to it and with Trump’s presidency in the US and memes across every social media outlet, the best and worst of internet culture is brought to the surface. An article by Adrienne Massanari discusses the incidents of surround the #Gamergate and The Fappening and the issues surrounding toxic techno cultures. It also discusses the ways in which Reddit’s algorithms work to highlight some content and suppress others.

This idea also ties into the use of marketing bots on Reddit. The website RedditBot specifically sells software to develop bots that upvote to boost sales by increasing traffic. This kind software affects the authenticity of the user driven content and creating a new type of content across the platform.

Nvidia is using Reddit to teach artificial intelligence how to use language properly so it is able to better understand how a conversation works. Reddit is not only incorporating bots into its platform but pushing forward AI technology through the shear volume of content that exists across the platform

Alexa has statistics on Reddit including where users are from and the traffic of the site which determines where it is ranked globally. The site Reddit Metrics provides statistics on trending subreddits and also provides information on the growth these subreddits. Statistics of the site as well as further research will be able to give me information about how Reddit consumed across the globe and help provide information about its users. This can provide insight into how communities on Reddit engage with each other and how this affects the wider global community.

Politcally, Reddit has been playing an important role in the US election and how people are responding these events. Bots pushing Trump up in polls and rumours being spread about donations he has made are being created through Reddit and are creating very real implications through this platforms and the technologies being introduced to it.

Having all these ideas in mind, I’d like to create my digital artefact through a podcast medium. Having never meddled with the world of podcasts before I’d like to present my research in a way that is interesting and engaging. However, I have not settled on this idea and am still keeping my options open while I continue to research this concept. To explore the different areas of the platform, I’d like to engage with a different topic across a series of podcasts that explore the technologies that are found across Reddit and the cyber culture surrounding the platform.

 

References

New Media & Society Vol 19, Issue 3, pp. 329 – 346 First published date: July-09-2016

Reflection – Assessment 3

Part 1: Critical Incidents

Incident 1

Throughout this project, I was continually generating content through Reddit and found that the content I received was far more in depth than simply ingredients. Those who are commented began to have arguments surrounding different foods and dishes. After speaking with both Jo and Travis, it was important to incorporate these conversations between people because of the interesting discussions that arose. The conversations were being led into different topics and aspects of the culture of both that country as well as the culture of the internet. As well as this, these conversations were interesting for me to read and felt that this could not be overlooked. These are some of the conversations that have occurred throughout the comments –

Norway

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Switzerland

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Denmark

denmark convo.JPG

this incident was an important turning point in my project as it changed the way that this publication would present the content. My focus shifted from solely focusing on food culture to beginning to consider how the responses I was receiving would be represented as these responses were unexpected before this point. Originally my intention was to use the information I received after filtering it for the ingredients that I would represent. However, after finding that these response were far more in depth than I had expected, the direction of my projected shifted to finding a way to represent the comments as a whole in an unfiltered way.

 

Incident 2

The interim presentation during week 11 was a really critical one for me. After the feedback I received, I had the moment of realization that I needed to take a totally different direction to the one I had been aiming towards. Due to the vastly different content I had been receiving through my content generation, I had found that it is continually getting more and more obscure as conversations begin to branch out into different topics and debates appear among commenters. The internet culture is heavily prominent in my content and the visual styles I have been working with up until this point were not representing the content in the right way.

Instead of creating a magazine publication which was my original intention, I decided to create a zine instead, making the entire aesthetic of the zine low tech and embracing the mess of the content I was receiving. After speaking with Jo and Travis, I decided to take more of a scrapbook aesthetic and began by doing a rough physical prototype of what this could look like.I then continued to bring this into a digital form and began to experiment with this new visual style.

lPxmTCC8.jpg

This incident was particularly significant as this changed the direction of my project and the way in which I was representing my content drastically. Incorporation this visual style represented the way in which the internet functions within the vast amounts of information which thereby showed the diversity of the answers that I received from my questions. It represents the original intent of online culture which was to share and spread information and the visual style of vaporwave is a visual representation of the early internet.

 

Incident 3

Whilst designing my final spreads I found that the cover of the zine was a particularly difficult aspect to capture. This cover needed to encapsulate the contents and the visual style of the book in a concise way in order to appeal to the reader. In doing so the title of this zine was also heavily debated. The first name that was considered was ‘The Reddit Edit’. This name encapsulated the nature of the zine, however, did not reference the main topic of the zine which was food. A tagline to this would assist this issue, however, it would not be able to connect with the audience if the reader was unfamiliar with the platform of Reddit. At this point in the design project I needed to choose whether I wanted this zine to focus on food culture or internet culture. The final name that was chosen was ‘Foods of the World – as told by the internet”. This name best represented the contents of the book as well as the visual style and would appeal to the audience as they are able to connect with both aspects.

This was an incident that was an important one to consider when bringing together the zine to represent both the content and visual style. The cover was a particularly significant spread as this would be the first part of the zine the audience would see, therefore needed to bring together all of the aspects of this design work.

Cover 1

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Final Cover

cover.JPG

 

 

Part 2: Learning from the Design Experience

Generating Content

Generating content was a key aspect of this project as this is what determined the overall design of my project. Gathering content early on within this process allowed me to discover how online users responded to my initial question and demonstrated the manner in which they replied through the internet. Initially I was unsure of what kind of responses I would receive but found that the manner of response was quite similar across different countries. There were both serious responses as well as joking responses which is expected as the anonymity of Reddit allows users to respond anyway they like without serious repercussions. The most surprising aspect of the responses were the amount of detail and length commenters went into about not only the ingredients they use but why they use them and why they are important. Responses ranged from a few words up to approximately 350 words as well as further discussion between the commenters.

The generation of content was a significant aspect of this project as it was a crucial aspect of this publication and was highly successful in representing both food culture as well as internet culture. This project demonstrated that content does not always need to come from professional sources but can come from online users which could also be considered more reliable in some ways as these users are not influenced or pressured to produce the content.

Pushing the boundaries of publication design

Throughout this project, I have also discovered that publication design can be explored further than just traditional forms such as magazines and books. Zines are an interesting form of publication that allow for all kinds topics to be explored in a creative way that is not limited by structures. The zine I have created through this design project represents an aspect of the internet that is not one that is usually seen in traditional publication. By bring together the internet and print media, I have gained a new perspective of both of these forms of communicating information as it demonstrates how language and tone differs across platforms.

Exploring a new visual style

This design project allowed me to explore a new visual style that I had previously had not experimented with. Discovering vaporwave, cyberpunk and seapunk styles has diversified my knowledge as a graphic designer. As these are a fairly new style that have only been around since the early 2010’s, it is still being explored through the online community. Applying this style through my design has allowed me to see design from a different perspective in which mess is viewed positively through embracing the look of the early internet while still incorporating modern internet culture. The remixing and modification aspect of this visual style has also allowed me to incorporate new ways of working in InDesign to create new work by including both existing work as well as my own original work.

How might you apply this learning to future design projects

These three aspects of the design experience I feel have been crucial to my knowledge and understanding of design. This project has given me a greater understanding of the link between content and visual language and I feel that I will be able to apply this learning to future projects by exploring content and the way it is created to then create the right visual language through my design work. I also wish to experiment further with publication design and ways in which image and text can be put together on a page by exploring further into zines and applying my knowledge into this form of publication. Researching into different visual styles will also be crucial to apply to future design projects and the way these are relevant to both the content, as well as, the target audience and the medium.

Part 3

Describe 2 alternative outcomes and discuss your rationale

The alternative outcomes of this project could have potentially been the original concept that I had explored. The first being the photographs with the text overlayed on the image. This approach was the original thinking behind the project and the way in which I wanted to represent the content. This combination was often used in the design works I had researched, however this approach was not suitable for the content that my publication needed as it did not visually represent the content in the right way.

prototype 3.JPG

Another alternative outcome of this project was using a more physical scrapbook form while still maintaining the photographic element. This design concept gave a more physical representation of the online content as it had comments on paper giving it a more analogue look and feel. It represented the idea of bringing the platform of Reddit into the physical world, however, this method still did not demonstrate the mess of content and the internet culture which was a key aim through this project.

prototype 2.JPG

 

Based on your experience how might you approach a similar design situation in the future? Why do you think this?

This experience has been a learning curve that has enabled me to look further into zines and how these are set apart from other forms of design. In the future, I would approach a similar design situation more openly by considering a greater range of design solutions that may not be traditional forms of publication design. Further research into zines would also enable me to improve upon a similar project in the future by exploring different ideas and content and how these a represented. Zines have a huge range of design solutions and I would explore these solutions in any future project I do with zines as well as in publication design. I believe that this is a key aspect of designing in publication and this project has demonstrated to me that exploring different visual styles in order to visually represent your content is key to a successful publication design.

Based on your experience how might you approach a different design situation in the future? Why do you think this?

This design project has provided me with a new perspective on publication design which I can apply to other projects in the future by exploring different approaches from one that have already been explored. This experience has demonstrated that vastly different forms of design such as the ones I explored can be brought together in interesting ways. Based on this experience I would be more open to exploring different pathways of representing ideas and information as well as exploring ways to encapsulate cultures. I believe that this experience has taught me that different aspects of culture can be brought together and exploring this through design can create interesting and original works.

How might the final outcomes and the thinking to emerge from your design project prepare you for industry or post graduate study

This project has created a new understanding of the range of publication design and has given me new ways to think about and consider the types of publication I can work in after completing my studies. This project has challenged me throughout the entire process as my design concept developed into a more abstract form than I had originally intended. Embracing the mess of the internet through a publication was a challenging task as this went against the traditional forms of publication but allowed me to push the boundaries of grids and structures. This project has been a great foundation for me to delve further into publication design in the future as it has challenged me creatively to be experimental with publication design, especially through the form of a zine. This design concept has also enabled me to discover user generated content through online platforms and the significance of the internet which is an ever-growing form of content with the increasing rise of social media.

 

Week 14

Significant outcomes

Generating Content

Generating content was a key aspect of this project as this is what determined the overall design of my project. Gathering content early on within this process allowed me to discover how online users responded to my initial question and demonstrated the manner in which they replied through the internet. Initially I was unsure of what kind of responses I would receive but found that the manner of response was quite similar across different countries. There were both serious responses as well as joking responses which is expected as the anonymity of Reddit allows users to respond anyway they like without serious repercussions. The most surprising aspect of the responses were the amount of detail and length commenters went into about not only the ingredients they use but why they use them and why they are important. Responses ranged from a few words up to approximately 350 words as well as further discussion between the commenters.

The generation of content was a significant aspect of this project as it was a crucial aspect of this publication and was highly successful in representing both food culture as well as internet culture. This project demonstrated that content does not always need to come from professional sources but can come from online users which could also be considered more reliable in some ways as these users are not influenced or pressured to produce the content.

Pushing the boundaries of publication design

Throughout this project, I have also discovered that publication design can be explored further than just traditional forms such as magazines and books. Zines are an interesting form of publication that allow for all kinds topics to be explored in a creative way that is not limited by structures. The zine I have created through this design project represents an aspect of the internet that is not one that is usually seen in traditional publication. By bring together the internet and print media, I have gained a new perspective of both of these forms of communicating information as it demonstrates how language and tone differs across platforms.

Exploring a new visual style

This design project allowed me to explore a new visual style that I had previously had not experimented with. Discovering vaporwave, cyberpunk and seapunk styles has diversified my knowledge as a graphic designer. As these are a fairly new style that have only been around since the early 2010’s, it is still being explored through the online community. Applying this style through my design has allowed me to see design from a different perspective in which mess is viewed positively through embracing the look of the early internet while still incorporating modern internet culture. The remixing and modification aspect of this visual style has also allowed me to incorporate new ways of working in InDesign to create new work by including both existing work as well as my own original work.

Career relevance

This project has challenged me throughout the entire process as my design concept developed into a more abstract form than I had originally intended. Embracing the mess of the internet through a publication was a challenging task as this went against the traditional forms of publication but allowed me to push the boundaries of grids and structures. This project has been a great foundation for me to delve further into publication design in the future as it has challenged me creatively to be experimental with publication design, especially through the form of a zine. This design concept has also enabled me to discover user generated content through online platforms and the significance of the internet which is an ever-growing form of content with the increasing rise of social media.